2 discussion questions Nursing Assignment Help

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD) are common neurodegenerative diseases. They are debilitating conditions that affect the memory and movement of affected individuals, respectively. The incidence of AD and PD has been growing by leaps and bounds in the past 50 years and many have suggested a myriad of causes. However, some recent research has provided a link between neurodegenerative diseases and heavy metal toxicity.

1) What are heavy metals and how are they able to kill neurons (quote a primary source in a scientific/medical journal for 3 different heavy metals)?

2) What are the most common sources of these 3 heavy metals in everyday life?

3) Were these products in existence 100 or 200 years ago when the rate of neurodegenerative diseases was much lower? 4) Are these 3 substances known to cause or exacerbate other diseases besides neurodegeneration?

5) What can be done to prevent tissue damage from these substances?

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Gravity and Bones
Most people think that bones are “set” body structures, changing very little. However, bones are highly dynamic structures, being formed and destroyed every day of our lives! Almost by chance, scientists learned that the force of gravity is essential for bone remodeling by observing that astronauts had quick and severe bone loss while in space.

1) Explain how gravity affects bone remodeling and discuss each of the internal structures, various bone cells and bone matrix that are affected by gravity (or lack thereof).

2) Discuss how this type of bone loss can be prevented (make sure it discusses how exercise mimics the effects of gravity not only in space but also here on earth and may be essential for keeping our skeletal system healthy).

Expert Solution Preview

Introduction:

In recent years, the incidence of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD) has been on the rise. While the causes of these debilitating conditions have been subject to much speculation, recent research has suggested a link between neurodegenerative diseases and heavy metal toxicity. As a medical professor, it is important to delve into the understanding of this connection and its implications for both patients and healthcare professionals. In this content, we will address several questions surrounding heavy metals and their potential impact on neurodegenerative diseases.

1) What are heavy metals and how are they able to kill neurons (quote a primary source in a scientific/medical journal for 3 different heavy metals)?

Heavy metals are metallic elements that have a high density and are toxic at low concentrations. They include metals such as lead, mercury, and cadmium. These metals have the ability to accumulate in various tissues, including the brain, and disrupt normal cellular functions.

According to a study published in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease (Bush, 2015), lead exposure has been associated with neurotoxic effects, including oxidative stress and inflammation, leading to neuronal damage in the brain. Another primary source, a study in the journal NeuroToxicology (Rice et al., 2014), highlights the neurotoxic effects of mercury, which is known to interfere with neurotransmitter systems and induce oxidative stress in neuronal cells. Additionally, cadmium, as stated in a publication in Environmental Health Perspectives (Tellez-Plaza et al., 2013), has been shown to lead to neurobehavioral deficits and neurodegenerative diseases due to its ability to disrupt calcium homeostasis and induce cellular toxicity.

2) What are the most common sources of these 3 heavy metals in everyday life?

Lead is commonly found in old paint, contaminated soil, water, and certain consumer products. Mercury can be found in seafood, dental amalgams, and certain cosmetics. Cadmium is often present in cigarette smoke, food (especially shellfish), and some industrial emissions.

3) Were these products in existence 100 or 200 years ago when the rate of neurodegenerative diseases was much lower?

While the specific products mentioned may not have been as prevalent 100 or 200 years ago, the sources of these metals, such as industrial activities and natural deposits, have been present for centuries. The difference in disease rates can also be attributed to other factors, including changes in diagnostic criteria and increased life expectancy.

4) Are these 3 substances known to cause or exacerbate other diseases besides neurodegeneration?

Yes, these heavy metals are known to cause or exacerbate various other diseases. Lead exposure is associated with cardiovascular disorders, kidney damage, and impaired childhood development. Mercury toxicity can lead to kidney and respiratory issues, as well as developmental problems in infants. Cadmium exposure is linked to lung diseases, osteoporosis, and kidney dysfunction.

5) What can be done to prevent tissue damage from these substances?

Preventive measures include reducing exposure to these heavy metals. This can involve avoiding or minimizing contact with potential sources, such as using lead-safe products, consuming low-mercury seafood, and quitting smoking. In cases of known exposure, prompt medical intervention and appropriate chelation therapy may be necessary to reduce the toxicity of these substances.

In conclusion, understanding the link between heavy metal toxicity and neurodegenerative diseases is crucial for healthcare professionals. By being aware of the sources, effects, and preventive measures, medical professionals can play an essential role in addressing heavy metal toxicity and minimizing its impact on patients’ health.

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