Discussion 2 Sheye Joseph Subscribe Everett

Discussion 2

Sheye Joseph


Everett Rogers’ framework in “Diffusion of Innovations” remains highly relevant today, serving as a critical tool for understanding how modern technologies and ideas permeate societies. His model hinges on five key elements: the innovation itself, communication channels, time, the social system, and the adopter categories. Here’s how these elements still apply in contemporary contexts, illuminated by ongoing research.

First, the nature of the innovation itself, which Rogers emphasized as being crucial due to attributes like relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability, and observability. Today, these features are central in the rapid spread of digital technologies and social media platforms. For instance, the relative advantage of smartphones over traditional mobile phones significantly hastened their adoption globally. Research shows that perceived usefulness (a parallel to Rogers’ relative advantage) continues to be a strong predictor of technology adoption among users.

Second, communication channels have evolved with the advent of digital media. Rogers highlighted the importance of both mass media and interpersonal channels in spreading new ideas. Today, social media platforms blend these concepts, acting both as mass communication tools and spaces for personal interaction. Studies have found that social networks profoundly influence adoption rates, as seen in the viral spread of apps like TikTok or in public health during vaccine rollouts in the COVID-19 pandemic.

Third, the aspect of time, as Rogers delineated through innovators to laggards in his adopter categories, is still applicable as it highlights the varying speed at which different groups embrace new ideas. Research in technology adoption still references these categories, exploring how early adopters influence later ones. The diffusion timeline has arguably accelerated due to globalization and the internet, making the study of these timelines more relevant than ever.

Fourth, the social system’s role in adoption processes remains critical. Rogers pointed out that norms and networks within a society could accelerate or impede the adoption of innovations. Modern examples include how regulatory environments and cultural openness to change impact the uptake of renewable energy technologies or biotechnologies.

In synthesis, while the mediums and contexts have evolved, the core of Rogers’ theory remains robust. It provides a valuable lens through which to view the spread of innovations today, from technology in personal use to transformative ideas in public health and environmental management. The persistence of his framework in contemporary research underscores its enduring value and adaptability to new challenges and technologies.

Overall, the principles outlined by Rogers in “Diffusion of Innovations” offer timeless insights that continue to guide researchers, policymakers, and business leaders in understanding the complex dynamics of change in society.

Valente, T. W. (1996). Social network thresholds in the diffusion of innovations. Social Networks, 18(1), 69-89. 

Chen, J. (2013). Theoretical basis, application, and insight of diffusion of innovations. SAGE Open, 3(3). 

Singh, S., Singh, N., & Sinha, N. (2020). Impact of perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and social influence on the subsequent technology adoption: Review and agenda for future research. Management Review Quarterly, 70, 457-502. 

Bhattacherjee, A., & Hikmet, N. (2007). Physicians’ adoption of electronic medical records: An extension of the UMR-UTAUT model. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 58(10), 1415-1424. 

Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). New York, NY: Free Press.


Discussion 2

James Ramsay

In the seminal work “Diffusion of Innovations,” Rogers (1962) presents a comprehensive framework to understand how new ideas, technologies, and practices are adopted within a society. This framework has remained relevant over the decades, proving a valuable tool in analyzing the spread of innovations across various domains, from technology to public health. Rogers introduces key elements—innovations, communication channels, time, and the social system—that interplay to influence the adoption process. Notably, he categorizes adopters into innovators, early adopters, and laggards, offering insights into the characteristics that differentiate these groups (Rogers, 1962).

Current research has expanded upon Rogers’ foundational work, applying it to the digital age and integrating it with other theoretical models to understand technology adoption at individual and organizational levels. For instance, the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) have been used alongside Rogers’ theory to delve deeper into the factors influencing technology adoption and usage (Venkatesh, Morris, Davis, & Davis, 2003; Davis, 1989).

The enduring relevance of Rogers’ theory in the contemporary landscape underscores its versatility and adaptability. Despite the emergence of new communication technologies and platforms, the principles outlined by Rogers provide a robust framework for understanding how innovations diffuse within societies. This cross-temporal applicability highlights the theory’s foundational role in the study of innovation diffusion and its significance in guiding academic research and practical applications in various fields.


Davis, F. D. (1989). Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. 
MIS Quarterly, 13(3), 319-340.

Rogers, E. M. (1962). 
Diffusion of innovations. New York, NY: Free Press.

Venkatesh, V., Morris, M. G., Davis, G. B., & Davis, F. D. (2003). User acceptance of information technology: Toward a unified view. 
MIS Quarterly, 27(3), 425-478.


discussion 5


Luis Maldonado

1: La Tomatina is a renowned Spanish festival celebrated annually in Buñol, Valencia, where participants engage in a massive tomato fight. Originating in the mid-20th century, it was said to have been created when some locals got into a fight, a tomato cart was nearby, and it turned into a food fight; they had so much fun that it became a tradition. This event typically occurs on the last Wednesday of August and draws thousands of tourists worldwide. The event promotes camaraderie and cultural celebration. Its popularity has led to its recognition as a symbol of Spanish culture. La Tomatina reflects Spain’s vibrant heritage and fosters unity through its unique and exhilarating tradition.

2: The festival of La Tomatina is an intriguing cultural spectacle. Its energetic atmosphere and unconventional nature make it an appealing event to experience. The prospect of partaking in a massive tomato fight is undeniably attractive, offering a unique and unforgettable adventure. However, I’m also interested in different local Spanish festivals, such as the Running of the Bulls in Pamplona, not so much to partake in but as a spectator. My running days are past me, and I prefer to remain somewhat healthy. I have been to Barcelona and went to a Barcelona vs. Real Madrid game, which was insane. The people’s passion was wild; it was a memorable moment. 

3: La Tomatina reminds me of Mardi Gras to a certain extent, people on the street having a great time—lots of culture and tradition with people coming from around the world to experience it. Granted, I’ve been to Mardi Gras, and the streets were disgusting; the video stated that they clean up the roads well after La Tomatina, which sounds more enjoyable. 

discussion 5


Julian Osborne

La Tomatina is a world-famous festival held in the town of Buñol, near Valencia, Spain. It’s essentially a massive tomato fight where participants hurl ripe tomatoes at each other. The event takes place on the last Wednesday of August each year and attracts thousands of tourists from all over the world.

As for my thoughts on the festival, it sounds like a messy yet incredibly fun experience! The sheer joy and camaraderie involved in throwing tomatoes at strangers must create a unique atmosphere of excitement and laughter. While I’ve never experienced La Tomatina firsthand, I can imagine the adrenaline rush and the sense of liberation from engaging in such a playful and unconventional activity.

I would definitely love to experience La Tomatina someday. It seems like a fantastic way to immerse oneself in Spanish culture while letting loose and having a blast. However, if given the opportunity, I would also be interested in participating in other regional Spanish festivals. For instance, the Running of the Bulls in Pamplona or the Carnival in Tenerife both offer their own distinct cultural experiences that I’d be eager to explore.

In terms of similarities to other festivals, La Tomatina shares some characteristics with events like Holi in India, where people engage in colorful powder fights, albeit with different materials. However, the atmosphere and cultural significance of La Tomatina are unique to Spain. Additionally, compared to other Spanish festivals like San Fermín (Running of the Bulls), La Tomatina is less about tradition and more about sheer fun and spectacle. Each festival offers its own distinct experience, whether it’s the adrenaline of running alongside bulls or the joy of a tomato fight.

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